ڷ >>>  >>>

 

 3. () Ưǥ () (,,浵,,,)

Ķ ̸ Ͻø(̾յ带 鸸) û ֽϴ. (ǥ ϸ, ش ǥ з˴ϴ ("" "" ).

  • (composition) : ǿ ټ ִ.
  • Al : Aluminium
    Ag : Silver
    Au : Gold
    B : Boron
    Ba : Barium

    Be : Beryllium
    C : Carbon
    Ca : Calcium
    Cl : Chlorine
    Cr : Chromium

    Cu : Copper
    F : Fluorine
    Fe : Iron
    H : Hydrogen
    K ; Potassium

    Li : Lithium
    Mg : Magnesium
    Mn : Manganese
    Na : Sodium
    O : Oxygen

    P : Phosphorus
    Pb : Lead
    Pt : Platinum
    S : Sulphur
    Si : Silicon

    Sn : Tin
    Sr : Strontium
    Ti : Titanium
    W : Tungsten
    Zn : Zinc
    Zr : Zirconium

  • 浵(hardness) : Mohs' scale ġ Ÿ. ӵǴ ġ 3½ ġ 3 4 ̿ ִٴ ϸ Ȯϰ ߰ġ ǹ ʴ´. 浵 ȭмп ټ ִ. ġ ġ̴.
  • (specific gravity) : е Ÿ ġ̴.
  • (refractive indices) : 谡 ִ. (cubic) ϳ ϸ Ѵ.
  • (birefringence) : 谡 ִ. ϸ ˾Ƴ. ġ ġ ġ ̴.

No.

ѱ۸


(RI)


(DR)


( ϴ )

ߺ׸
(ۺ)
()

70

Achroite
(Tourmaline)
(ũξƮ)


(Ѩ)
()

Complex borosilicate

Na(Li,Al) 3Al 6(BO 3) 3Si 6O 18 (OH) 4

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3.06

1.62-1.64

0.018

47

Agate
(Chalcedony)
(ְƮ)


(إ)
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

پ , ѷ

119

Albite
(ٹƮ)


()

Sodium calcium aluminosilicate

(Na,Ca)AlSi 3O 8

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

6

2.64

1.54-1.55

0.009

,
 û

7

Almandine
(Garnet)
(ٸյ)


(״)
(, () )

Iron aluminium silicate

Fe 3Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

4.00

1.76-1.83

ο ,
ȫ ,
/, ,

135

Amber
(ڹ)

ȣ
()

Ĺ

ַ C 10H 16O

(ު, Amorphous)

1.08

1.54-1.55

Ұ

=>
ݺ Ȳ, ݺ , , , ֻ,

124

Amblygonite
(ںƮ)

ιݼ
() 

Lithium aluminium hydroxyphosphate

LiAl(F,OH)PO 4

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

6

3.02

1.57-1.60

0.026

,
, ȫ, , û, ݺ Ȳ,

38

Amethyst
(Quartz)
(ֹ̽ýƮ)

ڼ
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ,Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

ֻ, ڻ, ֻ, Ǫ Ǵ ֻ

80

Andalusite
(صƮ)

ȫּ
()

Aluminium silicate

Al 2SiO 5

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.16

1.63-1.64

0.010

ٻ
Ȳ =>£ , £ , , Ȳ ȸ

13

andradite Garnet
(ص巯Ʈ)


(״)
(() )

Calcium iron silicate

Ca 3Fe 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

3.85

1.85-1.89

Ȳ=>£ Ȳ

13

andradite Garnet
(ص巯Ʈ)


(״)
(() )

Calcium iron silicate

Ca 3Fe 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

3.85

1.85-1.89

£ ,

13

andradite Garnet
(ص巯Ʈ)


(״)
(() )

Calcium iron silicate

Ca 3Fe 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

3.85

1.85-1.89

ӷ ()

88

Anglesite
(رۻƮ)

Ȳ꿬

Lead sulphate

PbSO 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3

6.35

1.87-1.89

0.017

, Ȳ, ȸ, , , Ǵ (濬)

34

Apatite
(ŸƮ)

ȸ
()

Calcium phosphate

Ca(F,Cl)Ca 4(PO 4) 3

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

5

3.20

1.63-1.64

0.003

=>,
, Ȳ, û, ֻ,

29

Aquamarine
(Beryl)
(Ӹ)

ּ
()
( ())

Beryllium aluminium silicate

Be 3Al 2(SiO 3) 6

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

2.69

1.57-1.58

0.006

ٴٺ , ϴú û, £ û

74

Aragonite
(Ʈ)


(߬)

Calcium carbonate

CaCO 3

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

2.94

1.53-1.68

0.155

, ,
Ǵ =>
Ȳ, û, ȫ Ǵ (Ҽ)

42

Aventurine Quartz
(Quartz)
( )

ݼ
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

( fuchsite mica), (Ȳö),
(ħö),
û , û ,

125

Axinite
(׼Ʈ)

μ
(ݨ)

Complex borosilicate

CaFeMgBAl 2 Si 4O 15(OH)

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

7

3.28

1.67-1.70

0.011

ٻ, , ܺ Ȳ, ڵ ֻ (£ ֻ), û

110

Azurite
(Ʈ)


()

Copper hydroxycarbonate

Cu 3(OH) 2(CO 3) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.77

1.73-1.84

0.110

û

75

Baryte
(Ʈ)


()

Barium sulphate

BaSO 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3

4.45

1.63-1.65

0.012

, ,
, پ , , Ȳ û

36

Benitoite
(Ʈ)

Ʈ

Barrium titanium silicate

BaTiSi 3O 9

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

3.67

1.76-1.80

0.047

û,

95

Beryllonite
(гƮ)

гƮ

Sodium beryllium phosphate

NaBePO 4

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

2.83

1.55-1.56

0.009

, , Ȳ

52

Blood Stone
(Chalcedony)
(彺)


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

, £ + (ȭö)

96

Brazilianite
(귯Ʈ)

귯Ʈ

Aluminium sodium hydroxyphosphate

Al 3Na(PO 4) 2(OH) 4

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

2.99

1.60-1.62

0.021

Ȳ, Ȳ

84

Bronzite
(Ʈ)


(ͯ)

Iron magnesium silicate


(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.35

1.65-1.67

0.010

Ȳ

41

Brown Quartz
(Quartz)
( )


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2 

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

, ȸ

41

Brown Quartz
(Quartz)
( )

 
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2 

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

41

Brown Quartz
(Quartz)
( )


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

, ȸ

60

Calcite
(ĶƮ)

ؼ (
۰)

Calcium carbonate

CaCO 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3

2.71

1.48-1.66

0.172

, 븮̿

51

Carnelian
(Chalcedony)
(īҸ)

ȫ
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

, (ȭö)

22

Cassiterite
(ĿͶƮ)

ּ
(), õ()

Tin oxide

SnO 2

(۰ͧ, Tetragonal)

6.95

2.00-2.10

0.100

,

76

Celestine
(ƾ)

õû
()

Strontium sulphate

SrSO 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.98

1.62-1.63

0.010

, , û, , û

77

Cerussite
(÷Ʈ)


()

Lead carbonate

PbSO 4 

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

6.51

1.80-2.08

0.274

, , ȸ,

44

Chatoyant Quartz
(Quartz)
(< ä (̾Ʈ ȿ)> 

ȼ
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

ûȸ, û (<=û)

 

44

Chatoyant Quartz
(Quartz)
(< ä (̾Ʈ ȿ)>)

ȣȼ
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2 

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

Ȳ/Ȳݺ (̻ȭö)

44

Chatoyant Quartz
(Quartz)
(< ä (̾Ʈ ȿ)>)

ȼ
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

ݾ ȸ Ȳ (û)+ܰ ()

79

Chrysoberyl
(ũ)

ݷϼ
()

Beryllium aluminium oxide

BeAl 2O 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.71

1.74-1.75

0.009

<޺>=>, ֻ Ǵ <鿭 Ʒ>

79

Chrysoberyl
(ũ) 

ݷϼ
()

Beryllium aluminium oxide

BeAl 2O 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.71

1.74-1.75

0.009

+Ȳ  ȸ( ü Ǵ ٴø ƿ ), ݺ

79

Chrysoberyl
(ũ) 

ݷϼ
()

Beryllium aluminium oxide

BeAl 2O 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.71

1.74-1.75

0.009

Ȳ

109

Chrysocolla
(ũݶ)

԰ۼ
(Ш)

Hydrated copper silicate

(Cu,Al) 2H 2Si 2O 5(OH) 4.nH 2O

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

2

2.20

1.57-1.63

0.030

, û ܰ

49

Chrysoprase
(Chalcedony)
(ũ)


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

Ǫ ()

 

39

Citrine
(Quartz)
(Ʈ)

Ȳ
()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

Ȳ Ǵ Ȳݺ Ȳ (ö)

56

Colourless Sapphire
(Corundum)
(Į󸮽 ̾)


(˼)
()

Aluminium oxide

Al 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

9

4.00

1.76-1.77

0.008

, , (ȭݼ)

132

Coral
(ڷ)

ȣ
(ߦ)

Calcium carbonate
or conchiolin

CaCO 3(or C 3H 48N 9O 11)

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3

2.68

1.49-1.66

Ұ

, ȫ, , û (źĮ)
, Ȳݻ (conchiolin)

81

Danburite
(ܺƮ)

رԻ ȸ (Щ߫ )

Calcium borosilicate

CaB 2(SiO 4) 2

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

7

3.00

1.63-1.64

0.006

, Ȳ, ȫ

116

Datolite
(Ʈ)

Ʈ

Calcium hydroxyborosilicate

Ca(B,OH)SiO 4

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

5

2.95

1.62-1.65

0.044


, Ȳ, ,

4

Diamond
(̾յ)

ݰ
(˧)

Carbon

C

(ͧ, Cubic)

10

3.52

2.42

, Ȳ, , , û, ȫ, , ȸ,

97

Diopside
(̿ɻ̵)

ּ ()

Calcium magnesium silicate

CaMg(SiO 3) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.29

1.66-1.72

0.029

û()

 

97

Diopside
(̿ɻ̵)

ּ ()

Calcium magnesium silicate

CaMg(SiO 3) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.29

1.66-1.72

0.029

, ϳ, , , (ö ׳׽ )

97

Diopside
(̿ɻ̵)

ּ ()

Calcium magnesium silicate

CaMg(SiO 3) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.29

1.66-1.72

0.029

(ũ)

62

Dioptase
(̿Ÿ)

뵿
()

Hydrated copper silicate

CuOSiO 2H 2O

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

5

3.31

1.67-1.72

0.053

, ӷ

63

Dolomite
(﷯Ʈ)

ȸ, 

Magnesium and calcium carbonate

CaMg(CO 3) 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

2.85

1.50-1.68

0.179

, , ȫ, Ȳ

69

Dravite
(Tourmaline)
(巯Ʈ)


(Ѩ)
(Ȳ)

Complex borosilicate

NaMg 3Al 6(BO 3) 3Si 6O 18(OH) 4

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3.06

1.61-1.63

0.018

̻
Ȳݺ , , £ (׳׽)

94

Dumortierite
(ƼƮ)

ƼƮ

Aluminium iron borosilicate

Al 7(BO 3)(SiO 4) 3O 3

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

7

3.28

1.69-1.72

0.037

ֻ+û, ,

28

Emerald
(Beryl)
(ӷ)

ּ
()
(())

Beryllium aluminium silicate

Be 3Al 2(SiO 3) 6

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

2.71

1.57-1.58

0.006

(ũҰ ٳ)

82

Enstatite
(ŸƮ)

ȭ
()

Magnesium iron silicate

Mg 2Si 2O 6

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.27

1.66-1.67

0.010

ȸ->Ȳ , ø -> (ö),
ӷ (ũ)

100

Epidote
(ǵƮ

ż
(ֳ)
ȫż
(ֳ)

Calcium aluminium iron hydroxysilicate

Ca 2(Al,Fe) 3(OH)(SiO 4) 3

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.40

1.74-1.78

0.035

ٻ
Ȳ, , £

118

Euclase
(Ŭ̽)

Ŭ̽

Beryllium aluminium hydroxysilicate

Be(Al,OH)SiO 4

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.10

1.65-1.67

0.019

, , , ûϻ

46

Fire Agate
(Chalcedony)
(ȭ̾ ְƮ)

ȭ
(إ)
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

(ȭö)

17

Fluorite
(÷Ʈ)


()

Calcium fluoride

CaF 2

(ͧ, Cubic)

4

3.18

1.43

پ
(Ȳ, û, ȫ, ֻ, )

1

Gold
()


()

Gold

Au

(ͧ, Cubic)

19.30

Ȳݺ Ȳ
Ȳݻ/(, ÷Ƽ, , ƿ)
, ȫ()
û(ö)

31

Goshenite
(Beryl)
(켾Ʈ)

ּ
()
()

Beryllium aluminium silicate

Be 3Al 2(SiO 3) 6

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

2.8

1.58-1.59

0.008

73

Green & Yellow Tourmaline
(Tourmaline)
(׸ ο ָ)


(Ѩ)
(/Ȳ)

Complex borosilicate


(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3.06

1.62-1.64

0.018

ӷ , Ȳ

11

Green Grossular (Grossular Garnet)
(׸ ׷ν)


(״)
()

Calcium chromium silicate

Ca 3Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic) 

7

3.49

1.69-1.73

, £ (ũ, ٳ)

57

Green Sapphire
(Corundum)
(׸ ̾)


(˼)
()

Aluminium oxide

Al 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

9

4.00

1.76-1.77

0.008

(û Ȳ ȥ)

115

Gypsum
(¤)


()

Hydrated calcium sulphate

CaSO 4.2H 2O

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

2

2.32

1.52-1.53

0.010

90

Hambergite
(ܺƮ)

ܺƮ

Beryllium hydroxyborate

Be 2(OH)BO 3

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

2.35

1.55-1.63

0.072

, Ȳ

19

Hauyne
(ȣ)


(۰)

Magnesium aluminium silicate

(Na,Ca) 4-8Al 6Si 6(O,S) 24 (SO 4Cl) 1-2

(ͧ, Cubic)

3.8

1.72-1.76

û

30

Heliodor
(Beryl)
(︮)

ּ
()
(Ȳ)

Beryllium aluminium silicate

Be 3Al 2(SiO 3) 6

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

2.8

1.57-1.58

0.005

Ȳ, Ȳݺ Ȳ

66

Hematite
(ŸƮ)

ö
()

Iron oxide

Fe 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

5.20

2.94-3.22

0.280

ݼӺ ,
(϶),
(ü)
ٸ
ð

9

Hessonite (Grossular Garnet)
(ҳƮ)


(״)
()

Calcium chromium silicate

Ca 3Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

3.65

1.73-1.75

=> (, ö)

114

Howlite
(ϿƮ)

ϿƮ

Hydrated calcium borosilicate

C 2B 5SiO 9(OH) 5

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

2.58

1.58-1.59

0.022

ȸ+ Ǵ

84

Hypersthene
(۽)

ڼּ
(

Iron magnesium silicate

(Fe,Mg)SiO 3

(۰ͧ)

3.35

1.65-1.67

0.010

( ħö ö)

68

Indicolite
(Tourmaline)
(εݶƮ)


(Ѩ)
(û)

Complex borosilicate

Na(Li,Al) 3Al 6(BO 3) 3Si 6O 18 (OH) 4

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3.06

1.62-1.64

0.018

£ û, û, û
ֻ, ֺ û, û

85

Iolite
(̿öƮ)

û
()

Magnesium aluminium silicate

Mg 2Al 4Si 5O 18

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

7

2.63

1.53-1.55

0.010

ٻ
û=>

134

Ivory
(̹)


()

Calcium hydroxyphosphate and organic

Ca 5(PO 4) 3(OH) ⹰

(ު, Amorphous)

1.90

1.53-1.54

Ұ

ũ

106

Jadeite
(̴Ʈ)


()

Sodium aluminium silicate

Na(Al,Fe)Si 2O 6

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

7

3.33

1.66-1.68

0.012

پ
, ֻ, , ȫ, , , û, , , Ȳ

50

Jasper
(Chalcedony)
(罺)


(ܡ)
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

, ȸ û, , Ȳ ׸ ̵ ȥ

50

Jasper
(Chalcedony)
(罺)


(ܡ)
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

Ǵ ȸ
ٹ
ȸ

131

Jet
(Ʈ)


()

Lignite (ź)

(ު, Amorphous)

 2½

1.33

1.64-1.68

Ұ

, £

86

Kornerupine
(ڸʷ)

ڸʷ

Magnesium aluminium borosilicate

Mg 4(Al,Fe) 6(Si,B) 4O 21(OH)

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.32

1.66-1.68

0.013

ٻ
=>

126

Kyanite
(ī̾Ʈ)


()

Aluminium silicate

Al 2SiO 5

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

5 Ǵ 7

3.68

1.71-1.73

0.017

=>£ û, , ȸ,

121

Labradorite
(귯Ʈ)

ȸ弮
()
(弮())

Sodium calcium aluminosilicate

(Na,Ca) 8(Al,Si) 4O 8

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

6

2.70

1.56-1.57

0.010

, Ȳ, ,

20

Lapis Lazuli
(ǽ ٸ)

ûݼ
()

Ʈ ٸ ϼ (Lazurite+ Sodalite+ Hauyne+ Calcite+ Pyrite)

(Na,Ca) 8(Al,Si) 12O 24(SO 4) Cl 2(OH) 2

()

2.80

1.5 ()

û+Ȳ Ȳ Ȳö+ ؼ

113

Lazulite
(Ʈ)

õ
()

Magnesium aluminium hydroxyphosphate

MgAl 2(PO 4) 2(OH) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.10

1.61-1.64

0.031

, ,
ִ =>£ û, ٻ( )

108

Malachite
(ȷīƮ)

ۼ
()

Copper hydroxycarbonate

Cu 2(OH) 2CO 3

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

4

3.80

1.85 ()

0.025

()

98

Merrshaum
(޸)

 ()

Hydrated magnesium silicate

Mg 4Si 6O 15(OH) 2.6H 2O

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

1.50

1.51-1.53

Ȳ Ǵ Ǵ ȸ

105

Microcline
(ũŬ)

̻弮
(ڰ)

Potassium aluminium silicate

KAlSi 3O 8

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

6

2.56

1.52-1.53

0.008

, , Ȳ, ȫ, , ȸ, , û

43

Milky Quartz
(Quartz)
(Ű )


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

Ǵ ũ (ü Ǵ üǰ)

104

Moon stone
(orthoclase)

( )


()
(弮())

Potassium aluminium silicate

KAlSi 3O 8

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

6

2.57

1.52-1.53

0.005

û Ǵ 鱤ä

32

Morganite
(Beryl)
(ųƮ)

ּ
()
(ȫ)

Beryllium aluminium silicate

Be 3Al 2(SiO 3) 6

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

2.8

1.58-1.59

0.008

ȫ, ̻, Ѻ, ֻ ()

47

Moss Agate
(Chalcedony)
( ְƮ)

¸
(إ)
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

, , Ǵ ȸ £ ̳ Ǵ

107

Nephrite
(Ʈ)


()

Calcium magnesium iron silicate

Ca 2(Mg,Fe) 5Si 3O 22(OH) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

2.96

1.61-1.63

0.027

£ (ö ٷ) => ũ(׳׽ ٷ),

128

Obsidian
(õ)

伮 ()

ַ silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(ު, Amorphous)

5

2.35

1.48-1.51

, , ȸ, , û,

120

Oligoclase
(øŬ̽)

ȸ弮()

Sodium calcium aluminosilicate

(Na,Ca)Al,Si) 4O 8

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

6

2.64

1.54-1.55

0.007

ݼӼ (, Ǵ ǻ )

48

Onyx
(Chalcedony)
(н)

ȣ
(إ)
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

̿ Ǵ ̿

127

Opal
()

ܹ鼮 (ӱ)

Hydrated silica gel

SiO 2.nH 2O

(ު, Amorphous)

6

2.10

1.37-1.47

پ

102

Orthoclase Colourless
(Į󸮽 Ŭ̽)


()
()

Potassium aluminium silicate

KAlSi 3O 8

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

6

2.56

1.51-1.54

0.005


û ä Ǵ

103

Orthoclase Yellow
(ο Ŭ̽)


()
(Ȳ)

Potassium aluminium silicate

KAlSi 3O 8

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

6

2.56

1.51-1.54

0.005

Ȳ(ö)

55

Padparadscha
(Corundum)
(е۷)


(˼)
( )

Aluminium oxide

Al 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

9

4.00

1.76-1.77

0.008

ȫ

130

Pearl
(۾)


()

Calcium  carbonate, conchiolin and water

CaCO 3,C 3H 18N 9O 11.nH 2O

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

 3

2.71

1.53-1.68

Ұ

, ,

87

Peridot
(䷯Ʈ)


(ռ)

Magnesium iron silicate

(Mg,Fe) 2SiO 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.34

1.64-1.69

0.036

ø Ǵ ϳ (ö)

117

Petalite
(жƮ)

жƮ

Lithium aluminium silicate

Li 2OAl 2O 38SiO 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

6

2.42

1.50-1.51

0.014


,

61

Phenakite
(dzīƮ)

dzīƮ

Beryllium silicate

Be 2SiO 4

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

2.96

1.65-1.67

0.015

,

112

Phosphophyllite
(϶Ʈ)

϶Ʈ

Hydrated zinc phosphate

Zn 2(Fe,Mn)(PO 4) 2.4H 2O

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

3.10

1.59-1.62

0.021

, £ û  

10

Pink Grossular (Grossular Garnet)
(ũ ׷ν)


(״)
(ȫ)

Calcium chromium silicate

Ca 3Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

7

3.49

1.69-1.73

=>ȫ(ö)

58

Pink Sapphire
(Corundum)
(ũ ̾)


(˼)
(ȫ)

Aluminium oxide

Al 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

9

4.00

1.76-1.77

0.008

ȫ (ũ)

52

Plasma
(Chalcedony)
(÷)


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

, £ +Ȳ

3

Platinum
(÷Ƽ)


()

Platinum

Pt

(ͧ, Cubic)

4

21.40

ȸ, ȸ,

49

Prase
(Chalcedony)
()


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

£Ǫ ()

91

Prehnite
(Ʈ)


(Ԭ)

Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate

Ca 2Al 2Si 3O 10(OH) 2

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

6

2.87

1.61-1.64

0.016

, Ȳ->

14

Pyrite
(̶Ʈ)

Ȳö
()

Iron sulphide

FeS 2

(ͧ, Cubic)

6

4.9

Ȳ Ȳ

5

Pyrope
(Garnet)
(̷)


(״)
()

Magnesium aluminium silicate

Mg 3Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

3.8

1.72-1.76

<blood red> (ö, ũ)

33

Red beryl
(Beryl)
( )

ּ
()
()

Beryllium aluminium silicate



(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

2.8

1.58-1.59

0.008

()

65

Rhodochrosite
(εũλƮ)

ɸ

Manganese carbonate

MnCO 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

4

3.60

1.660-1.80

0.220

ȫ (), ȫ+

123

Rhodonite
(εƮ)

ּ

Magnesium silicate

(Mn,Fe,Mg,Ca)SiO 3

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

6

3.60

1.71-1.73

0.014

=>
ȫ, ̺

37

Rock crystal
(Quartz)
( ũ)


()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

40

Rose Quartz
(Quartz)
( )

̼
(ڹ)
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.65

1.54-1.55

0.009

ȫ, Ѻ (ҷ Ƽź)

67

Rubellite
(Tourmaline)
(级Ʈ)


(Ѩ)
()

Complex borosilicate

Na(Li,Al) 3Al 6(BO 3) 3Si 6O 18 (OH) 4

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3.06

1.62-1.64

0.018

ȫ Ǵ

53

Ruby
(Corundum)
()

ȫ
()
((˼))

Aluminium oxide

Al 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

9

4.00

1.76-1.77

0.008

(ũ),
ȫ, ֻ Ǵ (ö)

24

Rutile
(ƿ)

ȫ
()

Titanium oxide

TiO 2

(۰ͧ, Tetragonal)

6

4.25

2.62-2.90

0.287

£ ٴ

54

Sapphire
(Corundum)
(̾)

û
()
((˼))

Aluminium oxide

Al 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

9

4.00

1.76-1.77

0.008

û (ö ƼŸ),
£ û,
ݼӺ û, £ û

48

Sard
(Chalcedony)
()

ڸ
(إ)
ȫ ()
(())

Silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

48

Sardonyx
(Chalcedony)
(ٴн)


(())

Silicon dioxide


SiO 2

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

7

2.61

1.53-1.54

0.004

(ȣ) + (ڸ)

23

Scapolite
(ijƮ)

ּ
()

Complex silicate

Na 4Al 3Si 9O 24Cl-Ca 4Al 6Si 6 O 24 (CO 3,SO 4)

(۰ͧ, Tetragonal)

6

2.70

1.54-1.58

0.020

ȫ, ֻ, û, Ȳ Ǵ ȸ (Ʈ Ǵ Į) =>

21

Scheelite
(϶Ʈ)

ȸ߼
()

Calcium tungstate

CaWO 4

(۰ͧ, Tetragonal)

5

6.10

1.92-1.93

0.017

=> Ȳ=>

72

Schorl
(Tourmaline)
()


(Ѩ)
( ⼮ (Ѩ))

Complex borosilicate

NaFe 3Al 6(BO 3) 3Si 6O 18 (OH) 4

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3.06

1.62-1.67

0.018

, (ö)

111

Serpentine
(ƾ)


(ڣ)

Magnesium hydroxysilicate

Mg 6(OH) 8Si 4O 10

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

5

2.60

1.55-1.56

0.001

Ǵ û
⸧ ,  Ǵ

133

Shell
()

а
()

Calcium carbonate

CaCO 3 C 32H 48N 2O 11

()

1.30

1.53-1.69

Ұ

 

83

Sillimanite
(ǸӳƮ)

Լ
(Ш)

Aluminium silicate

Al 2SiO 5

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.25

1.66-1.68

0.019

ٻ
û, + Ȳ , £ û 

2

Silver
(ǹ)


()

Silver

Ag

(ͧ, Cubic) 

10.50

89

Sinhalite
(Ʈ)

Ʈ

Magnesium aluminium iron borate

Mg(Al,Fe)BO 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.48

1.67-1.71

0.038

ٻ
Ȳ , £ ,

64

Smithsonite
(̽ҳƮ)

ɾƿ
()

Zinc carbonate

ZnCO 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

5

4.35

1.62-1.85

0.230

, û , Ȳ(ī) + ȫ(ڹƮ)

18

Sodalite
(Ҵ޶Ʈ)

޼
(۰ӹ)

Sodium aluminium silicate

3NaAlSiO 4NaCl

(ͧ, Cubic)

2.27

1.48()

û(Ʈ)+ؼ )

6

Spessartine
(Garnet)
(縣ƾ)


(״)
( )

Magnesium aluminium silicate

Mn 3Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic) 

7

4.16

1.79-1.81

=>ο => (ö)

15

Sphalerite
(ӷƮ)

ƿ
()

Zinc sulphide

(Zn,Fe)S

(ͧ, Cubic)

4.09

2.36-2.37

£ =>,  Ȳ  Ǵ

16

Spinel
(dz)

÷
()

Magnesium aluminium oxide

MaAl 2O 4

(ͧ, Cubic)

8

3.60

1.71-1.73

پ , =>
(ũ, ö)
û (ö, ƿ Ǵ ڹƮ)

99

Spodumene
()

ּ ()
<: Ǫ >

Lithium aluminium silicate

LiAl(SiO 3) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

7

3.18

1.66-1.67

0.015

پ , Ȳ ȸ

 

99

Spodumene
(Hiddenite)
(
(Ʈ))

ּ
()

Lithium aluminium silicate

LiAl(SiO 3) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

7

3.18

1.66-1.67

0.015

ӷ (ũ)

 99

Spodumene
(Kunzite)
(
(Ʈ))

ּ
(ȫ)

Lithium aluminium silicate

LiAl(SiO 3) 2

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

7

3.18

1.66-1.67

0.015

϶ ȫ ()

93

Staurolite
(ѶƮ)

ڼ
()

Aluminium iron hydroxysilicate

(Fe,Mg,Zn) 2Al 9(Si,Al) 4O 22 (OH) 2

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

7

3.72

1.74-1.75

0.013

ٻ
,

35

Taaffeite
(Ʈ)

Ʈ

Beryllium aluminium silicate

BeMg 3Al 8O 16

(۰ͧ, Hexagonal)

8

3.61

1.72-1.77

0.004

ֻ, , û =>

 92

Tanzanite
(Zoisite)
(Ʈ)

ż
(ֻ)

Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate

Ca 2(Al,OH)Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.35

1.69-1.70

0.010

ֻ, û, ûȸ(ٳ)
ֻ(鿭)

129

Tektites
(ŸƮ)

ŸƮ

ַ silicon dioxide

SiO 2

(ު, Amorphous)

5

2.40

1.48-1.51

, =>

92

Thulite
(Zoisite)
(ƫƮ)

ż
()

Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate

Ca 2(Al,OH)Al 2(SiO 4) 3

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

3.35

1.69-1.70

0.010

ȫ ()

101

Titanite
(ŸϳƮ)

ʼ
()

Calcium titanium silicate

CaTiSiO 5

ܻ (Ӥͧ, Monoclinic)

5

3.53

1.84-2.03

0.120

ٻ
Ȳ, Ǵ

78

Topaz
()

Ȳ
()

Aluminium fluorohydroxysilicate

Al 2(F,OH) 2SiO 4

(۰ͧ, Orthorhombic)

8

3.54

1.62-1.63

0.010

, ȫ, û, , ȸ , £ Ȳݺ Ȳ

27

Tugtupite
(ͱƮ)

ͱƮ

Sodium aluminium beryllium silicate

Na 4AlBeSi 4O 12Cl

(۰ͧ, Tetragonal)

6

2.40

1.49-1.50

£ => ȫ

122

Turquoise
()

Ű, ()

Hydrated copper aluminium phosphate

CuAl 6(PO 4) 4(OH) 8.5H 2O

(߲ͧ, Triclinic)

6

2.80

1.61-1.65

0.040

=>
ϴú û=> (ö )

8

Uvarovite
(Garnet)
(ٷιƮ)


(״)
(, ȸ()ũ )

Calcium chromium silicate

Ca 3Cr 2(SiO 4) 3

(ͧ, Cubic)

3.77

1.86-1.87

(ũ)

26

Vesuvianite
(Ʈ)

Ʈ

Calcium aluminium silicate

Ca 6Al(Al,OH)(SiO 4) 5

(۰ͧ, Tetragonal)

3.40

1.70-1.75

0.005

, , û, Ȳ ,

71

Watermelon Tourmaline
(Tourmaline)
(͸ ָ)


(Ѩ)
(ȫ+)

Complex borosilicate

Na(Li,Al) 3Al 6(BO 3) 3Si 6O 18 (OH) 4

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

3.06

1.62-1.64

0.018

ȫ ߽ɰ

59

Yellow Sapphire
(Corundum)
(ο ̾)


(˼)
(Ȳ)

Aluminium oxide

Al 2O 3

(߲۰ͧ, Trigonal)

9

4.00

1.76-1.77

0.008

Ȳ, Ȳ

25

Zircon
()

dzڼ
()

Zirconium silicate

ZrSiO 4

(۰ͧ, Tetragonal)

4.69

1.93-1.98

0.059

,
Ȳ, , û, , , (Ҽ)

No.

ѱ۸

и


(RI)


(DR)


( ϴ )

ߺ׸
(ۺ)
()

Ķ ̸ Ͻø(̾յ带 鸸) û ֽϴ. (ǥ ϸ, ش ǥ з˴ϴ ("" "" ).

 3. () Ưǥ () (,,浵,,,)

  ڷ >>>  >>>

⵵ ֽ 538-7 | TEL: +82 (0)31 766 0862 | FAX: +82 (0)31 766 0863

Copyright 2002~2018 (gemtec.co.kr) All Rights Reserved.